סקר
באיזה גיל התחלת ללמוד דף יומי






 

Steinsaltz

Just as the festival of Passover requires remaining overnight in Jerusalem, and only on the following day may one return home, so too, the festival of Sukkot requires remaining overnight in Jerusalem before returning home.

The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to Passover, from where do we derive this halakha? The Gemara explains: As it is written about the Paschal offering: “And you shall roast and eat it in the place which the Lord your God shall choose; and you shall turn in the morning, and go to your tents” (Deuteronomy 16:7).

The Gemara asks: And the first tanna of the baraita and Rabbi Shimon, who learn from the verse: “On the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkot” (Deuteronomy 16:16), that one transgresses the prohibition against delaying only after three Festivals have passed, from where do they derive the halakha that the Shavuot offering has redress for seven days?

The Gemara answers: They derive it from that which Rabba bar Shmuel taught, as Rabba bar Shmuel taught: The Torah states to count the days, as it is stated: “A month of days” (Numbers 11:20), and then sanctify a new month with offerings. And the Torah also said to count the days from Passover, as it is stated: “You shall count fifty days” (Leviticus 23:16), and then sanctify the festival of Shavuot with offerings. Just as the new month is sanctified for the unit of time by which it is counted, i.e., for one day, so too, Shavuot is sanctified for the unit of time by which it is counted, i.e., for one full week, as it is stated: “Seven complete weeks shall there be” (Leviticus 23:15).

The Gemara asks: But if so, say that the Shavuot offering may be redressed for only one day, as Shavuot is determined by a count of fifty days from Passover. How, then, is it known that the Shavuot offering has seven days for redress? Rava said: Is that to say that we count only days until Shavuot, but we do not also count weeks? But didn’t the Master say: It is a mitzva to count fifty days, and it is also a mitzva to count seven weeks, which teaches that the Festival peace-offering brought on Shavuot may be sacrificed for an entire week. And further, it is written in the verse: “The festival of weeks [shavuot],” which teaches that it is a Festival that is established through a count of weeks.

§ It was taught in the baraita that one becomes liable for transgressing the prohibition against delaying if he delays bringing the Paschal lamb. The Gemara expresses its astonishment about this ruling: But is the Paschal lamb fit to be sacrificed on the other Festivals? The Paschal lamb has a fixed time to be brought, on the fourteenth of Nisan; if one sacrificed it then, he has sacrificed it, but if he did not sacrifice it then, it is excluded forever from any use.

Rav Ḥisda said: The Paschal lamb is cited here for no reason [kedi]; that is to say, the prohibition against delaying is not relevant to the Paschal lamb, and the latter was mentioned in the baraita only because firstborn offerings, animal tithes, and the Paschal lamb are often grouped together.

Rav Sheshet said a different explanation: What is meant here by a Paschal lamb? It is the peace-offering that is brought in place of a Paschal lamb. If a lamb that had been set aside to be sacrificed as a Paschal offering was lost, and its owner took another lamb and sacrificed that as his Paschal lamb, and afterward the first animal was found, it must now be brought as a peace-offering. This offering is subject to all the halakhot of the prohibition against delaying.

The Gemara asks: If so, this is the same as the peace-offerings listed earlier, and it is still redundant. The Gemara answers: The baraita taught the halakha with regard to peace-offerings brought in place of a Paschal lamb, and it also taught the halakha with regard to peace-offerings brought independently. The reason for this repetition is that it might enter your mind to say: Since the peace-offerings are brought in place of a Paschal lamb,

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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