סקר
איזו "בבא" הכי קשה?






 

Steinsaltz

Say that they disagree over the status of the Mediterranean Sea with regard to impurity and purity, but with regard to Shabbat did you hear that they disagree? Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult. This baraita, which prohibits bathing in the Mediterranean, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for its curative effects. That baraita, which permits bathing, is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for non-medical purposes.

The Gemara asks: And how did you establish this last baraita? Do you say that it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water? If it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, it would be permitted to bathe even in water in which flax was soaked, as it was taught in a baraita: One may bathe on Shabbat in the waters of Tiberias, and in water in which flax was soaked, and in the Sodom Sea, and this is even though one has wounds on his head that are healed by bathing in these waters. In what case is this statement said? In a case where one did not remain in the water, since it appears that he entered the water to cool himself. However, if one remained in the water it is prohibited.

Rather, the contradiction between the baraita that permits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat and the baraita that prohibits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat is not difficult. There is a distinction between the two. This baraita, which permits doing so, is referring to the pure water in it, i.e., the area in the Great Sea in which one bathes for pleasure during the week. That baraita, which prohibits bathing, is referring to the polluted water in it, which people enter only for medicinal purposes. And with regard to the contradiction between one statement with regard to the water in which flax was soaked and the other statement about water in which flax was soaked, it is also not difficult. There is a distinction between the two statements. This baraita, which prohibits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he was bathing for medicinal purposes. That baraita, which permits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one did not remain there. It is permitted to bathe in that water for non-medical purposes.

MISHNA: One may not eat eizoveyon on Shabbat because healthy people do not eat it, and therefore it is clear that anyone eating it is doing so for its medicinal value. However, one may eat a plant called yo’ezer and may drink abuvro’e. Furthermore, all types of food that healthy people eat may be eaten by a person even for medicinal purposes. And one may drink all drinks except for water from palm trees and a kos ikarin because they are known as a remedy for jaundice. Therefore, it is prohibited to drink them on Shabbat for curative purposes. However, one may drink palm tree water on Shabbat in order to quench his thirst, and one may smear ikarin oil on himself for non-medical purposes.

GEMARA: Rav Yosef said: Unspecified hyssop mentioned in the Torah is called abarta bar hamag in Babylonia, and eizoveyon is called abarta bar hing. Ulla said: The hyssop mentioned in the Torah is white sage. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda. They brought white sage before him. He said: This is the hyssop that is written in the Torah. Rav Pappi said: Hyssop is the root called shumeshuk. Rav Yirmeya of Difti said: In accordance with the opinion of Rav Pappi it is reasonable, as we learned in a mishna: The mitzva of hyssop is that one take three branches each with three stems, and shumeshuk is the species that is found with that configuration of three stems on each of its branches. The Gemara says: For what purpose do people eat it? It is eaten for curing intestinal worms. And with what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven black dates. From what do worms come into being in the intestines? They come into being from eating barley flour from a vessel that held the flour for forty days since it was ground.

We learned in the mishna: However, one may eat the yo’ezer plant. The Gemara asks: What is yo’ezer? The Gemara answers: It is the vegetable known as potnak. For what is it eaten? It is eaten to cure liver worms. With what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven white dates. From what do worms come into being in the liver? From eating raw meat with water on an empty stomach, and from eating fatty meat on an empty stomach, and from eating ox meat on an empty stomach, and from eating nuts on an empty stomach, and from eating fenugreek shoots on an empty stomach and drinking water thereafter.

And if one has liver worms but does not have any potnak handy, or if one has taken potnak and it did not help, he should swallow white cress. And if he does not have that or if it did not help him, he should sit in fast, and take fatty meat and place it on coals and suck the bone and swallow vinegar. And some say: One should not drink vinegar because it is harmful to the liver. And if none of those options are available, let one take the sawdust that was scraped from the shell of a thorn bush from top to bottom, and not from bottom to top, as perhaps then the worms will come out through his mouth. And let one then boil the scrapings in beer at twilight and the next day close his nostrils and drink it. And when he defecates, he should defecate on the trunk of a palm tree.

We learned the mishna: And one may drink abuvro’e on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is abuvro’e? The Gemara answers: It is the plant known as ḥumtareya. The Gemara asks: What is ḥumtareya? It is that which is called the lonely staff. The Gemara asks: For what purpose is it used? It is used for one who drank exposed water from which we suspect a snake drank and left behind its venom. And if one does not have the lonely staff, or if it was ineffective, let him take five roses and five cups of beer and cook them together until there is a quarter of a log of liquid and then drink it.

The Gemara relates: Rav Aḥadvoi bar Ami’s mother made this remedy for a certain man who had drunk exposed water suspected of having venom in it. She took one rose and one cup of beer and she boiled them. She gave it to him to drink, and lit the oven, and swept out the coals, and placed a brick inside it on which he could sit and not get burned. And something that appeared like a green leaf emerged, i.e., he vomited the venom.

Rav Avya said: The remedy for one who has swallowed venom is to drink a quarter of a log of milk from a white goat. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said: Let one bring a sweet citron and make a hole in it, and fill it with honey, and place it among burning coals, and eat it. Rabbi Ḥanina said: Urine that is forty days old is an effective remedy for several maladies: A very small cupful is beneficial in treating a hornet sting. A quarter of a log is beneficial in treating a scorpion bite. Half a log is effective in treating one who drank exposed water. A log is even effective in counteracting witchcraft. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Water in which spinach was boiled [anigron], and water in which banagri grass was boiled [avangar], and balsam are effective for both one who drank exposed water and as an antidote for witchcraft.

One who swallowed a snake should be fed hops in salt, and then he should be made to run a distance of three mil. The Gemara relates: Rav Shimi bar Ashi saw a person who swallowed a snake, and Rav Ashi appeared to that person as a horseman. Rav Shimi fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. Some say that Rav Shimi bar Ashi was the one who swallowed a snake, and Elijah came and appeared to Rav Ashi as a horseman. He fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. One who was bitten by a snake should have the fetus of a white donkey brought to him, and it should be torn open and placed on the snakebite. The Gemara says: And this applies only when the mother does not have a condition that will cause it to die within twelve months [tereifa]. The Gemara relates: There was a certain

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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