סקר
איך אתה לומד דף יומי?






 

Steinsaltz

But there is the case of the second tithe, which may be redeemed, whereas food that is purchased with second-tithe redemption money may not be redeemed. As we learned in a mishna (Ma’aser Sheni 10:10): With regard to food that was purchased with second-tithe money and that then became ritually impure, this ritually impure food must be redeemed with money, with which one must purchase other food. Rabbi Yehuda says: The food must be buried. The Gemara infers from the mishna: If the food purchased with the second-tithe money became impure, yes, it may be redeemed, but if it did not become impure, it may not be redeemed. If so, according to Rabbi Yehuda, the halakha that food purchased with second-tithe money must be buried if it becomes impure is more stringent than the halakha for second-tithe produce itself, which may be redeemed if it becomes impure.

The Gemara answers: There, the reason one may not redeem food that was purchased with second-tithe money and that then became ritually impure is not that the halakha is more stringent. Rather, there is a different reason. Since this food was merely purchased with second-tithe money, its sanctity is not as strong as the tithe itself and is unable to grasp its redemption money. Its status as second tithe is weak, and cannot be transferred to a third item. Consequently, if it becomes impure, according to Rabbi Yehuda it cannot be redeemed for money but must be buried, as an item that one is prohibited to derive benefit from.

Mar Zutra asks: But there is the case of a substitution, as the status of an offering does not take effect with regard to a permanently blemished animal, while consecration performed via substitution does take effect with regard to an animal with a permanent blemish. Although the animal cannot be sacrificed as an offering and must be redeemed, even after its redemption it may not be used for labor and its wool may not be used.

The Gemara answers: The sanctity of a substitution comes by virtue of a consecrated animal; therefore it has a stronger sanctity. But the sanctity of a consecrated animal itself comes by virtue of a non-sacred animal, as there was no consecrated animal by which the owner extended the sanctity to this animal.

Mar Zutra asks: But there is the case of a Paschal offering, as it does not require the placing of hands on its head, or wine libations to accompany the offering, or waving of the breast and thigh. While its remainder, an animal that was designated as a Paschal offering but was not sacrificed at the right time, which is then sacrificed as a peace offering, has more stringent halakhot, because it requires the placing of hands on its head, and wine libations to accompany the offering, and waving of the breast and thigh.

The Gemara answers: A Paschal offering on the rest of the days of the year is the same as a peace offering, and the animal is no longer considered to be a Paschal offering. Since it is a peace offering, all the halakhot of a peace offering apply to it, and the fact that it was once designated as a Paschal offering is irrelevant. The conclusion of the Gemara is that there are no cases where a secondary status is more stringent than the corresponding primary status. Therefore, the derivation from the halakha of a sin offering to the halakha of a burnt offering, that the latter should be disqualified if it was not slaughtered in the north or if its blood was not collected in the north, remains.

And if you wish, say there is a different proof that even after the fact a burnt offering that was not slaughtered in the north is disqualified. The verse states: “And slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering” (Leviticus 4:29). Since the earlier verse (Leviticus 4:24) already stated: “In the place of the burnt offering,” the repetition in this verse stresses that it shall be in its place, meaning that the offering is disqualified if it is slaughtered anywhere else.

§ The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that a guilt offering, which is an offering of the most sacred order, requires slaughter in the north? The Gemara answers: As it is written: “In the place where they slaughter the burnt offering they shall slaughter the guilt offering, and its blood shall be sprinkled around the altar” (Leviticus 7:2). Since the burnt offering must be slaughtered in the north, the guilt offering must also be slaughtered in the north.

The Gemara asks: We have found a source that the slaughter must be in the north. From where do we derive that the collection of the blood must also be in the north? The Gemara answers that the second half of the verse states: “And its blood shall be sprinkled around the altar.” Since the blood must be collected immediately after the slaughter and before the sprinkling, just as the slaughter must be in the north, so the collection of its blood must also be in the north.

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that the one who collects the blood must himself stand in the north? The Gemara answers: It is derived from the fact that the verse does not only state: “Its blood shall be sprinkled,” but states: “And its blood shall be sprinkled” (Leviticus 7:2). The conjunction “and [ve’et]” serves to include the one who collects the blood.

The Gemara asks: We have found a verse teaching that in order to perform the mitzva in the optimal manner, the slaughtering of the guilt offering is in the north. From where do we derive to disqualify after the fact an offering slaughtered elsewhere, not in the north? The Gemara answers: Another verse is written, referring to a guilt offering, which states: “And he shall slaughter the sheep in the place where they slaughter the sin offering and the burnt offering, in the place of the Sanctuary; for as the sin offering, so is the guilt offering; to the priest, it is most holy” (Leviticus 14:13). This teaches that all guilt offerings are disqualified if they are not slaughtered in the north.

The Gemara asks: But does this verse come to teach this halakha? This verse is necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: With regard to a matter that was included in a general category but left to discuss a new matter, i.e., if a novel aspect or special ruling is taught with regard to a specific case within a broader general category, you may not return it to its general category even for other matters, and this case is understood to have been entirely removed from the general category, until the verse explicitly returns it to its general category.

The Gemara explains: How so? The verse states: “And he shall slaughter the sheep in the place where they slaughter the sin offering and the burnt offering, in the place of the Sanctuary; for as the sin offering, so is the guilt offering; to the priest, it is most holy” (Leviticus 14:13). As there is no need for the verse to state: “As the sin offering, so is the guilt offering,” since the verse had already equated the guilt offering with the sin offering, why does the verse state: “As the sin offering, so is the guilt offering”? What does it serve to teach?

Since the guilt offering of a leper left the general category of guilt offerings to teach a new matter, as there is a halakha unique to the guilt offering of a leper in that blood of the offering is placed on the right thumb of the hand and the right big toe of the foot and the right ear of the leper, one might have thought that this guilt offering does not require placement of blood or the burning of sacrificial portions on the altar, as the halakhot of this guilt offering are unique.

To counter this reasoning, the verse states: “As the sin offering, so is the guilt offering.” Just as the sin offering requires the placement of the blood and the burning of sacrificial portions on the altar, so too, the guilt offering of a leper requires placement of the blood and the burning of sacrificial portions on the altar. Similarly, just as the verse had to teach these two halakhot, so too, the verse had to state: “And he shall slaughter the sheep in the place where they slaughter the sin offering and the burnt offering,” to teach that it requires slaughter in the north. It cannot serve as a source for the general halakha that a guilt offering slaughtered in a place other than in the north is disqualified.

The Gemara explains: If so, that the optimal manner to perform the mitzva is to slaughter a guilt offering in the north but failure to do so does not disqualify the offering, let the Torah write the requirement to slaughter in the north in this context, i.e., in the context of the guilt offering of a leper, and not write it in that context, i.e., that of the standard guilt offering. The requirement for slaughter in the north for all other guilt offerings could be derived from the guilt offering of the leper. The repetition of the requirement to slaughter in the north serves to disqualify a guilt offering whose slaughter is not in the north.

The Gemara comments: This works out well if we hold that with regard to a matter that left its category to teach a new matter, the following principle applies: That matter itself does not learn halakhot from its general category until the Torah explicitly returns it to that category,

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
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