סקר
ללומדים דף יומי בלילה - איזה דף אתם לומדים?




 

Steinsaltz

The Gemara suggests: And if you wish, say there is a different resolution: The sprinkling outside is derived from the sprinkling inside, all at once. There are not two comparisons here, one derived from the other, but rather a single, complex juxtaposition, from which all of the relevant halakhot are derived.

The Gemara comments: Granted, according to the one who says that a matter derived via a juxtaposition and another principle is not a juxtaposition, this is the reason that it is written with regard to the offering brought on Shavuot: “You shall bring out of your dwellings two wave loaves of two-tenths of an ephah; they shall be of fine flour” (Leviticus 23:17).

Since apparently there is no need for the verse to state: “You shall bring,” as it already states: “And you shall present a new meal offering to the Lord” (Leviticus 23:16), why must the verse state: “You shall bring”? It states this to teach that anything that you bring from another place that is similar to this offering, i.e., the leavened bread that accompanies a thanks offering, shall be prepared like this. Just as there, with regard to the two loaves, they must be prepared from a tenth of an ephah of flour for each loaf, so too here, each of the ten loaves of leavened bread that accompany a thanks offering must be prepared from a tenth of an ephah of flour for each loaf.

If they are compared, why not say that just as there, with regard to the two loaves, the total amount of flour is two-tenths of an ephah, so too here, with regard to the ten loaves that accompany a thanks offering, the total amount of flour for all ten should be two-tenths of an ephah? To counter this comparison, the verse states: “They shall be,” to serve as a restriction and teach that only these two loaves amount to a total of two-tenths of an ephah, but the bread accompanying the thanks offering does not amount to two-tenths of an ephah.

The Gemara continues: The ten loaves accompanying a thanks offering must each be a tenth of an ephah, and this has been derived from two sources: A juxtaposition with the offering of Shavuot and another principle, which is that which the verse states concerning the thanks offering, that there must be ten leavened loaves. And we have learned that ten-tenths of an ephah is required for the ten loaves of leavened bread. From where is it derived that ten-tenths of an ephah are required for the matza which also accompanies a thanks offering? After stating that thirty matzot accompany a thanks offering, the verse states: “With cakes of leavened bread” (Leviticus 7:13), to juxtapose the matza with the leavened bread. This teaches that one must bring matza of an amount corresponding to the leavened bread. In any event, this derivation can be employed according to the one who says that a matter derived via a juxtaposition and another principle is not a juxtaposition.

But according to the one who says that a matter derived via a juxtaposition and another principle is a juxtaposition, and therefore it cannot then teach its halakha via another juxtaposition, what is there to say? How can the measure of flour for the matza be derived from the measure of flour for the leavened bread? The Gemara answers: The first halakha, connecting the two loaves of Shavuot to the bread accompanying a thanks offering, is not derived via a juxtaposition, but rather via a superfluous word. The term “You shall bring,” written with regard to the two loaves, is extra, and is therefore considered as if it were written explicitly with regard to the leavened bread accompanying the thanks offering. Therefore, it is possible to derive the halakha concerning matza from the halakha concerning leavened bread via a juxtaposition.

§ The mishna teaches: The Paschal offering is eaten only at night and it is eaten only until midnight. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna who taught this mishna? Rav Yosef said that it is Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And they shall eat of the flesh on that night” (Exodus 12:8). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: It is stated here: “On that night,” without stating when the night ends. And it is stated there, with regard to the plague that afflicted the firstborn Egyptians: “And I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night and I will strike every firstborn in the land of Egypt” (Exodus 12:12). With regard to the death of the firstborns the Torah states: “So said the Lord: At about midnight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt and every firstborn in Egypt shall die” (Exodus 11:4–5).

Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya continues: Just as in the verse there, the death of the firstborns occurred until midnight, as stated explicitly in the verse, so too, in the verse here, the mitzva to eat the Paschal offering continues until midnight but not beyond.

Rabbi Akiva said to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: But isn’t it already stated: “And so you shall eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, your staffs in your hands, and you will eat it in haste, for it is the Paschal offering for the Lord” (Exodus 12:11)? This verse indicates that the Paschal offering may be eaten until the time of haste, i.e., until dawn, as the Jewish people left Egypt hastily the next morning.

The Gemara asks: If so, why must the verse state: “On that night,” with regard to eating the Paschal offering? The Gemara explains: This phrase is necessary, as one might have thought that the Paschal offering is like all the other offerings in that it should be eaten during the day, on the day it is sacrificed. To counter this reasoning, the verse states: “On that night,” to emphasize that this particular offering shall be eaten at night, but it shall not be eaten during the day.

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: And from where do you know that the mishna represents the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, and is stating that the Paschal offering must be eaten by midnight by Torah law? Perhaps the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, and is stating that the Paschal offering must be eaten by midnight by rabbinic law, and the reason for the rabbinic decree was to distance one from a sin. Rav Yosef replied: If so, what does the mishna mean when it says: It is eaten only until midnight? With regard to the other offerings the mishna teaches: Until midnight, without specifying: Only. Rather, one must say that it is like there, with regard to the other halakhot of the Paschal offering stated in the mishna. Just as there, the requirements are by Torah law, so too here, with regard to the final time for eating the meat, the requirement is also by Torah law.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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