סקר
כמה לומדי דף יומי יש במשפחתך הקרובה?






 

Steinsaltz

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: If one wishes to know how much to give for the redemption of the firstborn son, take the worn-out gold dinars of Hadrian and Trajan, which are sold at twenty-five dinars, and deduct from them one-sixth. And these that remain are the five sela that one must give for the redemption of the firstborn son, i.e., twenty dinars, as there are four dinars in a sela. The Gemara challenges: After deducting one- sixth from twenty-five, one is not left with twenty dinars, but twenty-one dinars less one-sixth [danka] of a dinar.

Rather, deduct one-sixth and another dinar, and these that are left are for the redemption of the firstborn son. The Gemara challenges: But the calculation is still inexact, as this sum is twenty dinars less one-sixth of a dinar. Rather, first deduct one dinar, and from the remainder, i.e., twenty-four dinars, deduct one-sixth, and these that are left are the five sela coins that one must give for the redemption of the son. The Gemara notes that these are a weight of twenty matkalei of the small golden dinars known as matkalei, which are worth twenty-eight and a half dinars, and half of a sixth of a dinar, in Arabian silver dinars.

§ Rava says: The biblical sela coins, i.e., the shekels that must be given for the redemption of the firstborn son, are each three and one-third dinars in weight, not four dinars. As it is written: “The shekel is twenty gera (Exodus 30:13), and we translate “twenty gera” as twenty ma’a. And it is taught in a baraita: Six silver ma’a equal a dinar. If so, twenty ma’a, which is equal to the sela of the Torah, is worth three and one-third dinars.

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita, which discusses the halakha of one who redeems an ancestral field from the Temple treasury. The Torah states that one who consecrates his field in the Jubilee year gives as its redemption, for each of the upcoming forty-nine years, fifty sela for each area fit for the sowing of a kor of barley seed. In this regard, the Sages have said that one gives a sela and a pundeyon, which is half a ma’a, per year. The baraita notes a discrepancy here: But in the sela coins of the Sanctuary there are forty-eight pundeyon, which means that according to the statement of the Sages, the redemption for forty-nine years amounts to forty-nine sela and forty-nine pundeyon, i.e., fifty sela and a pundeyon, one pundeyon more than the sum required by the Torah.

The baraita explains: This pundeyon, what is its function? It is a premium [kilbon] for exchanging the sela into pundeyon. In any case, this baraita teaches that there are forty-eight pundeyon in the sela of the Torah, which is twenty-four ma’a. This contradicts the statement of Rava, who said that the sela of the Torah is worth only twenty ma’a.

The Gemara answers that the baraita is referring to the period after the Sages added one-sixth to the coins, i.e., four ma’a to each sela. As it is taught in a baraita, with regard to the verse: “Twenty gera shall be the shekel” (Leviticus 27:25): We learn from here with regard to the shekel mentioned in the Torah that it is twenty gera. And from where is it derived that if one wants to add to the number of ma’a in the shekel he may add? The verse states: “Twenty gera shall be the shekel,” whereby the term “shall be” denotes an increase. One might have thought that one may reduce the number of ma’a in the shekel to fewer than twenty. Therefore, the verse states: “The same is twenty gera” (Numbers 18:16), i.e., it may not be fewer than that.

The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi sent seventeen dinars to Rav Aḥa, son of Ravina, a priest, for the redemption of the firstborn son. Along with the money, Rav Ashi sent him the following message: Let the Master send me back the extra one-third of a dinar that is included in the sum. Since according to Rava the sela of the Torah is worth three and one-third dinars, five sela amount to sixteen dinars and two-thirds, which is one-third less than the seventeen dinars he sent. Rav Aḥa sent him in response: Let the Master send me the other three dinars that the Sages added to them, since after the Sages added to the sela of the Torah, five sela are equal to twenty dinars, three more than the seventeen Rav Ashi sent.

§ The Gemara continues to discuss the value of coins. Rabbi Ḥanina says: Any silver shekel that is stated in the Torah but which is unspecified is referring to one sela. Additionally, any unspecified silver shekel mentioned in the Prophets is a silver litra, weighing twenty-five sela, and any unspecified silver shekel mentioned in the Writings is in centenaria [kintarin], silver weighing one hundred sela. This is the case throughout the Bible except for the silver of Ephron, where even though it is written in the Torah: “Shekels of silver,” without specification, it is in centenaria, as it is written: “Four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant” (Genesis 23:16). This means that the silver was acceptable as shekels everywhere, and there is a place where they call a centenarius a shekel.

With regard to the worn-out dinars of Hadrian and Trajan mentioned earlier, Rabbi Oshaya says: The Sages wished to sequester all the silver and gold in the world because of the silver and gold of Jerusalem, i.e., that which was kept in the Temple treasury and was appropriated by gentiles and mixed with other silver and gold. They did not permit its use until they found a verse in the Torah indicating that it is permitted, as it is stated: “And robbers shall enter into it, and profane it” (Ezekiel 7:22). This verse teaches that once robbers plundered the silver and gold it is profaned and does not retain its sanctity.

The Gemara asks: And is Jerusalem the majority of the world such that that all of the silver and gold of the world should be prohibited due to a concern that it comes from Jerusalem? Rather, Abaye said: The Sages wished to sequester all the worn-out dinars of Hadrian and Trajan because of the coins of Jerusalem, as these coins contained a large quantity of the Temple treasury’s gold and silver, until they found a verse in the Torah indicating that it is permitted, as it is stated: “And robbers shall enter into it, and profane it.”

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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