סקר
כמה לומדי דף יומי יש במשפחתך הקרובה?






 

Steinsaltz

MISHNA: All sacrificial animals in which a permanent blemish preceded their consecration do not assume inherent sanctity and only their value is consecrated, and once they were redeemed, they are obligated in the mitzva of a firstborn, i.e., their offspring are subject to being counted a firstborn, and in the priestly gifts of the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, and they can emerge from their sacred status and assume complete non-sacred status in order to be shorn and to be utilized for labor. And their offspring and their milk are permitted after their redemption.

And one who slaughters them outside the Temple courtyard is exempt from karet, and those animals do not render an animal that was a substitute for them consecrated. And if these animals died before they were redeemed, they may be redeemed and fed to dogs, and they do not require burial, except for the firstborn and the animal tithe. With regard to these two types of offerings, even if they were blemished before they became consecrated they assume inherent sanctity, like other offerings that were consecrated and subsequently became blemished.

And all sacrificial animals whose consecration preceded their blemish, or who had a temporary blemish prior to their consecration and afterward developed a permanent blemish and they were redeemed, they are exempt from, i.e., their offspring are not counted, a firstborn, and from the gifts of the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw, and they do not completely emerge from their sacred status and assume non-sacred status in order to be shorn and to be utilized for labor.

And their offspring, which were conceived prior to redemption, and their milk, are prohibited after their redemption. And one who slaughters them outside the Temple courtyard is liable to receive karet, and those animals render an animal that was a substitute for them consecrated. And if these animals died before they were redeemed, they may not be redeemed and fed to dogs; rather, they must be buried.

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that all animals that were blemished prior to their consecration are subject to their offspring being counted a firstborn and to the obligation of the gifts once they have been redeemed. The Gemara infers: The reason that they are subject to the obligations of a firstborn and the gifts is that they were redeemed. But if they were not redeemed, they are exempt from their offspring being counted a firstborn and from the obligation of the priestly gifts. The Gemara comments: This indicates that the tanna of the mishna holds: Sanctity that inheres in an animal’s value defers, i.e., renders it exempt, from the mitzva of the firstborn and from the gifts.

§ The mishna further teaches: And they can emerge from their sacred status and assume complete non-sacred status in order to be shorn and to be utilized for labor. The Gemara infers: The reason they become non-sacred is that they were redeemed. But if they were not redeemed, they remain sacred and are prohibited with regard to shearing and labor. The Gemara notes: This supports the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who says: Animals consecrated for the Temple maintenance are prohibited with regard to shearing and labor. Since animals consecrated for the Temple maintenance are equivalent to animals that possess sanctity that inheres in their value, the mishna supports Rabbi Eliezer’s opinion.

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: The Sages said: No; the mishna does not necessarily support the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. It is possible that it is only with regard to an animal that has sanctity that inheres in its value and that was consecrated for the altar, which can be mistakenly exchanged with an animal that possesses inherent sanctity and was likewise consecrated for the altar, that the Sages decreed that it is prohibited to shear it and perform labor with it, due to a concern that one might confuse it with an animal that possesses inherent sanctity and ultimately violate a Torah prohibition. But with regard to animals consecrated for the Temple maintenance, no such decree was issued, as this concern does not apply.

§ The mishna teaches that their offspring and their milk are permitted after their redemption. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of the case of the mishna, in which the offspring of blemished redeemed animals are permitted? If we say that the mishna is referring to a case where the animals became pregnant and gave birth after their redemption, then it is obvious that the offspring are permitted, as they are non-sacred animals from the moment of conception. Rather, it must be referring to a case where they became pregnant before their redemption, and gave birth after their redemption, and the mishna is teaching that the offspring are permitted despite the fact they were conceived while their mothers were consecrated.

The Gemara infers from this ruling: But if the animals gave birth before their redemption, the offspring are prohibited until they are redeemed.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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