סקר
עם סיום מסכת עירובין






 

Steinsaltz

A woman who confesses and says: I am defiled, and therefore prohibited to you; and a woman with regard to whom witnesses came and testified that she is defiled; and a woman who says: I will not drink the bitter water of a sota, even if she does not confess her guilt; and a woman whose husband changed his mind and does not want to force her to drink; and a woman whose husband engaged in sexual intercourse with her on the way to the Temple.

And all the women who are married to priests, their meal-offerings are always burned, as the verse states: “And every meal-offering of a priest shall be completely burned; it shall not be eaten” (Leviticus 6:16). An Israelite woman who is married to a priest, her meal-offering is burned; and the daughter of a priest who is married to an Israelite, her meal-offering is eaten.

The mishna asks a general question: What are the differences between a priest and the daughter of a priest? The meal-offering of the daughter of a priest is eaten by the priests, but the meal-offering of a priest is not eaten. The daughter of a priest can become disqualified from marrying a priest and from partaking of teruma by engaging in sexual intercourse with someone forbidden to her, but a priest does not become desacralized by engaging in sexual intercourse with a woman forbidden to him.

The daughter of a priest may become impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, but a priest may not become impure with impurity imparted by a corpse except for the burial of his seven closest relatives. A priest may eat from offerings of the most sacred order, but the daughter of a priest may not eat from offerings of the most sacred order.

What are the halakhic differences between a man and a woman? A man lets his hair grow and rends his garments when he is a leper, but a woman does not let her hair grow or rend her garments when she is a leper. A man can vow that his minor son shall be a nazirite, obligating the son to remain a nazirite even during his adulthood, but a woman cannot vow that her son shall be a nazirite. A man can shave at the culmination of his naziriteship by using offerings originally designated for his father’s naziriteship, i.e., if one’s father was also a nazirite and he died having already designated offerings for the culmination of his naziriteship; but a woman cannot shave at the culmination of her naziriteship by using offerings designated for her father’s naziriteship.

A man can betroth his daughter to another man while she is a minor, but a woman cannot betroth her daughter even while she is a minor. A man can sell his daughter as a maidservant while she is a minor, but a woman cannot sell her daughter as a maidservant even while she is a minor. A man is stoned naked, but a woman is not stoned naked. A man is hanged after he is stoned for certain transgressions, but a woman is not hanged. A man is sold for his committing an act of theft in order to pay his debt, but a woman is not sold for her committing an act of theft.

GEMARA: The Sages taught (Tosefta 2:6): All the women who are married into the priesthood, their meal-offerings are burned. How so? With regard to the daughter of a priest, or the daughter of a Levite or an Israelite woman who is married to a priest, her meal-offering is not eaten due to the fact that her father or husband, respectively, has a share in the meal-offering, and it is therefore treated as the meal-offering of a priest, which is not eaten. But it is not completely burned without removing a handful from it, as the Torah states with regard to the meal-offering of a priest, due to the fact that she also has a share in it. Rather, the handful is sacrificed by itself, and the remainder of the meal-offering is sacrificed by itself.

The Gemara asks: One should apply here the principle that in the case of any offering that is meant to be partly burned on the flames of the altar, one who burns the remainder of the offering is subject to the prohibition: Do not burn. This prohibition is derived from the verse: “You shall not burn of it as an offering made by fire unto the Lord” (Leviticus 2:11). Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, said that the priest burns the remainder not as an offering but for the purpose of firewood. This is permitted, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: With regard to those parts of an offering which may not be burned, for a pleasing aroma you may not burn them; however, you may burn them on the altar for the purpose of firewood.

The Gemara continues: This works out well according to the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who holds in accordance with this reasoning and permits burning the remainder of an offering as firewood; however, according to the Rabbis, who do not hold in accordance with this reasoning, what can be said? How is the remainder burned on the altar? The Gemara answers: With regard to the remainder, they act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says with regard to the meal-offering of a sinner who is a priest: The handful is removed from the meal-offering and sacrificed by itself, and the remainder is neither eaten nor burned on the altar; rather, it is scattered on the place of the ashes.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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