סקר
בעקבות מסכת שקלים - האם תרצה ללמוד עוד מסכת מהתלמוד הירושלמי?





 

Steinsaltz

GEMARA: The Sage taught: In what case is this statement of the mishna said? With regard to a short naziriteship of thirty days. However, with regard to a naziriteship of a year, he partakes of sacrificial food only after two years. He cannot shave until a year has passed, in case he is not a leper; he may shave the second time only a year later, in case he was impure during the first year and this second year was his naziriteship observed in purity. At this stage he may partake of sacrificial meat, for if he was a full-fledged leper he has shaved twice.

Yet if the first two shavings were for his leprosy, he has not shaved for his naziriteship at all, and therefore he must observe a third year of naziriteship and shave. He then must observe another year of naziriteship and shave again, as perhaps his third shaving was for impurity and the fourth will be for his naziriteship in purity. And consequently he may drink wine and become impure from the dead only after four years.

And it is taught with regard to the halakha of the mishna (Tosefta 6:1): And he shaves with four separate acts of shaving, each time for its own reason. How so? For his first shaving, after the thirty days of an unspecified naziriteship or at the end of the period he vowed to observe naziriteship, he brings two birds of a leper: One is slaughtered over spring water and the other is sent away (Leviticus 14:4–7).

And he also brings a bird sin-offering for his shaving of impure naziriteship, as he may have contracted impurity from a corpse, and an animal burnt-offering for his shaving of purity, as he may not have contracted impurity from a corpse. For his second shaving he brings a bird sin-offering and an animal burnt-offering. For his third shaving he again brings a bird sin-offering and an animal burnt-offering. And for the fourth shaving he brings an offering of purity.

The Gemara analyzes the details and reasons for this halakha: You said in this baraita that for the first shaving he brings the two birds of a leper, as well as a bird sin-offering and an animal burnt-offering. The Gemara explains: In this manner he brings the proper offerings whichever way you look at it. As, if his status as a leper is definite and he is not impure, the birds he brings are for his obligation to purify himself from leprosy. And as the bird sin-offering in case he was impure was brought due to uncertainty, it goes for burial, like all bird sin-offerings sacrificed in a case of uncertainty, which cannot be eaten. And the bird burnt-offering that he brought in case he was an impure nazirite is a gift offering.

The Gemara further explains: But it is not possible to shave him right after seven days, as one usually does when purified from leprosy, as perhaps he is not a confirmed leper and has no obligation to shave but is bound by the naziriteship vow, and the Merciful One says: “No razor shall come upon his head; until the days are fulfilled in which he consecrated himself to the Lord” (Numbers 6:5). This verse teaches that he cannot shave until the end of his naziriteship. Therefore, he shaves only after thirty days.

The Gemara continues to clarify the various uncertainties concerning the first shaving. And if he is not a definite leper but he is impure from a corpse, the bird sin-offering is for his obligation as an impure nazirite, and there is no problem with the unnecessary rituals of a leper’s birds, as they are performed outside the Temple, and are not subject to the prohibition against bringing non-sacred animals into the Temple courtyard. Therefore, the slaughter of one of the birds outside the Temple is not a transgression. And the animal burnt-offering is considered a gift offering.

And if he is neither a leper nor impure he has also acted correctly, as the birds are performed outside the Temple, which means no transgression is committed, while the bird sin-offering of uncertain necessity goes to burial, and the animal burnt-offering is for his obligation, like any nazirite who completes his naziriteship. The Gemara asks: But isn’t a leper required to bring a guilt-offering to complete his atonement and permit him to partake of sacrificial food? The Gemara answers: This ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who said that one may bring a guilt-offering and stipulate as follows: If I am obligated to bring this offering then it is for my obligation; and if not, it shall be a voluntary peace-offering.

For the second and third shavings he does not need to bring birds again, as he has already performed this ritual. What is the potential concern? That perhaps he was previously a confirmed leper of definite status. For this reason, one of the bird sin-offerings he brings at the second shaving is for the days of his counting when his status was uncertain. After the first purification of a confirmed leper he counts seven days, or thirty days in this case due to the uncertainty, and brings a sin-offering.

And the one sin-offering he brings at his third shaving is for his uncertain impurity. If he was a leper, the offerings he brought on the previous occasion were for purification of his leprosy, not his naziriteship. This means that, if he was impure, he is still required to bring a sin-offering for his impurity as a nazirite. Furthermore, the animal burnt-offerings he brings for his second and third shavings are for his naziriteship of purity. For his fourth shaving he brings an offering of purity and stipulates as follows:

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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