סקר
כמה לומדי דף יומי יש במשפחתך הקרובה?






 

Steinsaltz

who is not of the opinion that the principle of combination is operative, as he renders one liable for consumption of forbidden substances of any amount (see Makkot 13a), what does he derive from the verse “anything that is made of the grapevine” (Numbers 6:4)? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon could have said to you: That verse is necessary to teach that one is never considered a nazirite until he vows naziriteship from all of them. Rabbi Shimon maintains that if one vows to be a nazirite only with regard to one or two of the prohibitions of naziriteship, the vow does not take effect at all.

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Elazar said: With regard to every halakha that is in the Torah that involves a quarter-log, a permitted substance does not combine with a forbidden substance to complete this measure, apart from the quarter-log of a nazirite. In the case of a nazirite, permitted liquid combines with wine to render him liable, as the Torah stated: “Soaked” (Numbers 6:3). The Gemara asks: What difference is there between the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan, who stated (35b) that a permitted substance does not combine with a forbidden one with regard to any prohibition of the Torah apart from that of a nazirite, and that of Rabbi Elazar, who apparently says the same thing in different terms?

The Gemara answers: There is a difference between them, as Rabbi Yoḥanan amplifies the halakha to include even foods, i.e., he renders a nazirite liable for eating an olive-bulk of bread and grapes combined, and Rabbi Elazar maintains that with regard to liquids, yes, the permitted combines with the forbidden, but for other matters, i.e., solids, no, the different foods do not combine.

§ Apropos a quarter-log, the Gemara cites a statement that Rabbi Elazar says: There are ten applications of the quarter-log measurement in various areas of halakha, and Rav Kahana held in his hand the following mnemonic for them: Five are red and five are white. The Gemara elaborates: The five red ones of wine and blood are listed in the following mnemonic: A nazirite; and one who performs the ritual of the Paschal offering; who instructed; in the Temple; and they died.

The Gemara explains this mnemonic: A nazirite, this is referring to the quarter-log of wine for which a nazirite is liable for drinking. Who performs the ritual of the Paschal offering, this is as Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: It is a mitzva to drink these four cups at the Passover seder and they must each contain the amount of a quarter-log. Who instructed, this is referring to the following halakha: One who drank a quarter-log of wine may not issue rulings to others in matters of halakha, lest he err. In the Temple, this is referring to the halakha that one who drank a quarter-log of wine and entered the Temple is liable to receive the death penalty (see Leviticus 10:9).

And they died, this is as it is taught in a mishna (Oholot 2:10): From where is it derived with regard to a quarter-log of blood that emerges from two corpses, that it renders people and objects ritually impure in a tent, i.e., a house, meaning that one who enters that house contracts ritual impurity imparted by a corpse? As it is stated, with regard to the prohibition against ritual impurity for priests: “Neither shall he go in to any dead bodies” (Leviticus 21:11). The plural form indicates that the blood of two people joins together to form the minimum amount of a quarter-log for ritual impurity in a tent.

And the five white cases of oil and water are listed in this mnemonic: The loaf of, a nazirite, and a leper, which were disqualified, on Shabbat. The Gemara elaborates: The loaf of, this is referring to the quarter-log of oil added to the loaves of a thanks-offering. A nazirite, this is referring to the quarter-log of oil for the wafers of a nazirite, which were brought with his offering. A leper, this is referring to the quarter-log of spring water into which a bird is slaughtered for the ritual purification of a leper (see Leviticus 14:5).Which were disqualified, this is as we learned in a mishna (Me’ila 17b): And all other ritually impure liquids disqualify the body to the extent that one who drinks them may not eat teruma, if one drank the amount of one quarter-log.

On Shabbat, this is as we learned in a mishna which lists the minimum amounts of various liquids for which one is liable for violating the halakhot of Shabbat for carrying them from one domain to another. At the conclusion of this list, the mishna states (Shabbat 76b): And the measure that creates liability for carrying all other liquids, those not specified in the list, is a quarter-log, and the measure for carrying all waste water is likewise a quarter-log. This completes the list of ten halakhot that feature the quarter-log.

The Gemara asks: And are there no more than ten? But there is also the following mishna (Yadayim 1:1): With a quarter-log of water one can wash the hands of one person before eating bread, and this amount can be used even for two people, if they do so in the correct manner. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Elazar, who listed ten cases, does not deal with halakhot that are subject to a dispute, and some Sages disagree with the ruling that two people can wash their hands with a single quarter-log.

The Gemara further asks: But there is this halakha concerning a sota (Sota 15b): The priest who dealt with a sota would bring an earthenware vessel [pailei] and place in it a half-log of water from the basin in the Temple, and Rabbi Yehuda says it was a quarter-log. This is another case involving a quarter-log. The Gemara answers as before, that Rabbi Elazar does not deal with halakhot that are subject to a dispute, and this quarter-log applies only according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

The Gemara continues to ask. But there is the following halakha: How much water must one place in a vessel that contains urine, before he can pray nearby? Any quantity is sufficient. Rabbi Zakkai said: A quarter-log. The Gemara again answers that Rabbi Elazar does not deal with halakhot that are subject to a dispute. The Gemara suggests another example: But there is the case of a ritual bath, as it is taught that one may immerse extremely small vessels in a quarter-log of rainwater in the ground. The Gemara answers: His list excludes that case, as the Sages annulled that halakha by ruling that one must use a standard ritual bath of forty se’a even for extremely small vessels.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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