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איך הלימוד שלך בעקבת הקורונה?






 

Steinsaltz

The Gemara asks further: But say it is referring to a year, which can also be full or lacking. The Gemara responds: Do we count years by days? Didn’t the Sages of Caesarea say: From where is it derived that one does not count days toward years, but that years are calculated according to months? As it is stated: “Of the months of the year” (Exodus 12:2). This teaches that months are calculated to comprise years, but days are not counted toward years. Therefore, only a month can be described as being completed by a particular day.

MISHNA: If one said: I am hereby a nazirite for one long term, or: I am hereby a nazirite for one short term, or even if one said: I am hereby a nazirite from now until the end of the world, in all these cases he is a nazirite for thirty days.

GEMARA: The mishna taught that even one who said: I am hereby a nazirite from now until the end of the world, becomes a nazirite for thirty days. The Gemara asks: Why does he become a nazirite for only thirty days? Didn’t he say: From now until the end of the world? The Gemara answers: This is what he is saying: Because of the difficulties it entails, it is as though this matter of naziriteship were as lengthy for me as the time from now until the end of the world.

The Gemara raises a difficulty: We learned in the mishna (8a): If one says: I am hereby a nazirite from here until such and such a place, one estimates how many days it takes to walk from here until such and such a place. If it is a distance of less than thirty days, he is a nazirite for thirty days, since this is the minimum term of naziriteship. And if not, i.e., if it takes more than thirty days to walk that distance, he is a nazirite in accordance with the number of days it takes to walk to that place. But here too, in that mishna, say that the individual intends to accept only a thirty-day term of naziriteship, and he means to say: This matter of naziriteship is as lengthy for me as the time it would take me to walk from here until such and such a place.

Rava said: That mishna is referring to one who had already set out on the way, so that it is apparent that his intention is to be a nazirite until he reaches his destination. The Gemara asks: Why is it assumed that he means to accept a single term of naziriteship that is the length of time it takes to travel to a certain destination? And let each and every parasang [parsa] be understood to refer to a separate term of naziriteship, such that the individual is understood to have accepted a separate term of naziriteship for each parasang that he must travel. Rav Pappa said: The mishna deals with a place where people do not measure distances in parasangs.

The Gemara asks further: And let each and every way station [avvana], where travelers lodge at night, be understood to refer to a separate term of naziriteship, such that the individual is understood to have accepted a separate term of naziriteship for each station that he passes along the way. Didn’t we learn in a mishna (8a): If one says: I am hereby a nazirite like the dust of the earth, or: Like the hair of my head, or: Like the sand of the sea, he is a nazirite forever, as it is understood that he accepted upon himself terms of naziriteship in accordance with the number of his hairs, or grains of dust, or sand, and he shaves once every thirty days?

The Gemara responds: Everything that has a fixed amount is not taught in this clause, which states that one is a nazirite forever. When one declares that he will be a nazirite for a length of time corresponding to an item that people consider infinite, e.g., the dust of the earth, his intention is not to define the length of a single term of naziriteship, as it is unknown how many grains of dust there are. However, when one mentions something that does have a fixed number, e.g., the number of days it takes to walk to a certain place, his intention is to define the length of a single term of naziriteship.

And similarly, it is taught in a baraita: If one says: I am hereby a nazirite all the days of my life, or: I am hereby a permanent nazirite, he is a permanent nazirite. However, if he said that he is a nazirite for a fixed period of time, even for one hundred years or even for one thousand years, he is not a permanent nazirite. Rather, he is a regular nazirite forever, since he will not live long enough to complete his term of naziriteship. This demonstrates that there is a difference between a naziriteship that lasts for a fixed time and a naziriteship that is unlimited.

Rabba said another reason for the distinction between one who accepts naziriteship based on the distance between places and one who accepts naziriteship based on the number of hairs on his head or the dust of the earth. Hairs are different, since they are separated from each other. Consequently, one who says: Like the hair of my head, is referring to distinct terms of naziriteship.

The Gemara asks: Also with regard to days, isn’t it written: “And there was evening and there was morning, one day” (Genesis 1:5), which indicates that each day is a separate unit? Consequently, one who vows to be a nazirite: From here until such and such a place, should be considered to have accepted upon himself distinct terms of naziriteship corresponding to the number of days it takes to travel to the designated destination.

The Gemara answers: The meaning of the verse there is not that days are separated from each other, because time is continuous. Rather, what it is saying is that the period of day and night is one calendar day, but actually days are not separate from each other.

The discussion above stemmed from the difficulty with the mishna’s case where one accepted naziriteship from now until the end of the world. Rava said: Why do you raise all these difficulties? It is different there, as it teaches that the individual said: I am hereby a nazirite for one long term. Since he specified that he is accepting one term of naziriteship, his statement is interpreted accordingly and is not interpreted as a reference to multiple terms of naziriteship.

MISHNA: If one said: I am hereby a nazirite and one day, or: I am hereby a nazirite and one hour, or: I am hereby a nazirite for one and a half, he becomes a nazirite for two consecutive terms of naziriteship. When he says: I am hereby a nazirite, he accepts upon himself one thirty-day term of naziriteship. When he subsequently adds an additional amount of time, e.g., an extra day, he thereby accepts upon himself an additional term of naziriteship, and the minimal term of naziriteship is thirty days.

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Why do I need the mishna to teach all these cases rather than giving just one example of the mishna’s principle? The Gemara explains: All the cases are necessary, as, if the mishna had taught only the case where one said: I am hereby a nazirite and one day, one might have thought: It is here that we say that there is no naziriteship for one day, and therefore he must count two terms of naziriteship. However, if he said: I am hereby a nazirite and one hour, let him count thirty-one days. The mishna therefore teaches us that even in this latter case he must keep two terms of naziriteship.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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