סקר
לקראת סיום מסכת עירובין






 

Steinsaltz

Since there is no need for the verse to state: “Of the seventh month,” as it already states: “On the Day of Atonement,” what is the meaning when the verse states: “Of the seventh month”? This serves to teach that all soundings of the shofar of the seventh month must be similar to one another.

And from where is it derived that there must be three sets of three blasts each? The verse states: “Then you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [shofar terua]”(Leviticus 25:9); and another verse states: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]” (Leviticus 23:24); and a third verse states: “It is a day of sounding [terua] the shofar to you” (Numbers 29:1). Terua is mentioned three times in these verses, and a terua is always preceded and followed by a tekia.

Since one of these verses deals with Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, while two of them deal with Rosh HaShana, the Gemara asks: From where is it derived to apply what is said about that verse to this one, and what is said about this verse to that one? With regard to Rosh HaShana, the verse states: “Of the seventh month” (Leviticus 25:9), and with regard to Yom Kippur the verse likewise states: “In the seventh month” (Leviticus 23:24). It is derived by verbal analogy that any shofar blasts sounded on one of these days must also be sounded on the other. Consequently, on each day one must sound three sets of tekia-terua-tekia.

How so? How does one actually perform the sounding of the shofar? One sounds three sets of three blasts each, which altogether are nine separate blasts. The length of a tekia is equal to the length of a terua, and the length of a terua is equal to the length of three shevarim.

The Gemara analyzes the baraita. This tanna initially derives his halakha from juxtaposition, based on the phrase: “Of the seventh month,” which teaches that every sounding of the shofar in the seventh month must be alike. And now he derives this halakha that one sounds three tekia-terua-tekia sets by verbal analogy from the recurrence of the term “seventh.” How can the tanna change his method of derivation in the very same baraita? The Gemara explains that this is what the tanna is saying: If there were no verbal analogy, I would have derived this halakha by juxtaposition. Now that it is derived through a verbal analogy, the juxtaposition is not necessary.

The Gemara comments: And the following tanna derives this halakha by verbal analogy from the sounding of the shofar in the wilderness, as it is taught in a baraita that the verse: “And you shall sound [utekatem] a terua (Numbers 10:5), indicates that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound. Do you say that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound? Or perhaps is it only that a tekia and a terua are one and the same, i.e., the two terms are synonymous? When it says: “But when the assembly is to be gathered together, you shall sound a tekia [titke’u], but you shall not sound a terua [tari’u]” (Numbers 10:7), you must say that a tekia is its own sound and a terua is its own sound.

And from where is it derived that a terua is preceded by a straight blast, i.e., a tekia? The verse states: “And you shall sound [utekatem] a terua (Numbers 10:5), which indicates that one must first sound a tekia and then a terua. And from where is it derived that a terua is followed by a straight blast? The verse states: “A terua you shall sound [titke’u]” (Numbers 10:6), i.e., first a terua and then a tekia.

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥanan ben Beroka, says: This derivation is not necessary, as the verse states: “And you shall sound [utekatem] a terua a second time” (Numbers 10:6). As there is no need for the verse to state: “A second time,” since it is clear from the context that this is the second terua, what is the meaning when the verse states: “A second time?” This is a paradigm of the principle that in all places where it is stated terua, a tekia should be second to it. I have derived this halakha only in the wilderness. From where do I derive that the same applies to Rosh HaShana? The verse states “terua with regard to the wilderness, and the verse states terua with regard to Rosh HaShana. This comes to teach by verbal analogy that the halakha of one applies to the other.

And three teruot are stated with regard to Rosh HaShana: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]” (Leviticus 23:24); “It is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to you” (Numbers 29:1); “Then you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]” (Leviticus 25:9). And there are two tekiot for each and every one of the teruot, one before and one after.

Consequently, we are found to have learned that three teruot and six tekiot are stated with regard to Rosh HaShana. Two of the teruot are required by the statement of the Torah and one by the statement of the Sages, i.e., based on the verses but not derived directly from them. How so? “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]” and “Then you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]”; these apply by Torah law. However, the verse “It is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to you” comes for its own statement, i.e., for the verbal analogy, which teaches that the halakhot of the wilderness apply to Rosh HaShana as well. Consequently, the third terua is merely alluded to in that verse and its obligation applies by rabbinic law.

Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yonatan said: One terua applies by Torah law, and two apply by rabbinic law: “Then you shall make proclamation with the blast of the shofar [terua]” applies by Torah law. However, the verses: “A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts [terua]” and “It is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to you”; these two phrases come for their own statement.

The Gemara asks: What does Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani mean when he says that the verse: “It is a day of sounding the shofar [terua] to you,” comes for its own statement? What other halakha is derived from this verse? The Gemara explains: It is required to teach that the shofar must be sounded during the day and not at night, as indicated by the phrase: “A day of sounding the shofar.”

The Gemara asks: And the other tanna, who does not derive this halakha from this verse, from where does he learn that the shofar must be sounded during the day and not at night? The Gemara answers: He derives it from that which is stated with regard to the Jubilee Year: “On the Day of Atonement” (Leviticus 25:9), which indicates that the shofar must be sounded during the day, not at night.

The Gemara asks: If that tanna derives this halakha from the phrase: “On the Day of Atonement,” let us also derive from it that one must sound a straight blast of a tekia before each terua and a straight one after it. Since he derives one halakha from the verses that deal with Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, why not derive this halakha from there as well? In that case, he would not need to derive it from the verses that deal with the wilderness. The Gemara answers: The phrases “Then you shall make proclamation [veha’avarta]” (Leviticus 25:9) and “You shall make proclamation [ta’aviru]” from the same verse do not indicate a tekia according to him, as they come to teach a different matter.

The Gemara asks: Rather, what does he learn from those phrases? The Gemara answers: He expounds: Veha’avarta,” in accordance with the opinion of Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said: “Veha’avarta,” which literally means: And you shall carry, indicates that the shofar must be shaped in the same way that the animal carries it on its head while alive, i.e., the natural narrow end must be maintained. One should not widen that side and narrow the naturally wide end. And the word ta’aviru teaches that the Merciful One states it so that one should not mistakenly explain as follows: Let us merely carry the shofar by hand throughout the land rather than sounding it.

The Gemara asks: And from where does the other tanna derive these halakhot, as he used this verse to learn that the terua must be preceded by a tekia. The Gemara answers: He derives the halakha of Rav Mattana from the fact that the verse changed its normal language. It employs the term “ta’aviru” instead of titke’u, the more common expression for sounding the shofar.

As for the concern that one might think the verse means: You shall merely carry the shofar by hand and not sound it, you cannot in any event say that, as that tanna derives by verbal analogy between the root avara used here and the same root avara that is found with regard to Moses. It is written here: “Then you shall make proclamation [veha’avarta] with the blast of the shofar,” and it is written elsewhere: “And Moses commanded, and they caused to be proclaimed [vaya’aviru] throughout the camp” (Exodus 36:6). Just as there, with regard to Moses, they proclaimed with a sound, so too here, the proclamation must be with a sound.

The Gemara asks: And according to the opinion of this tanna, who derives the halakha that each terua of Rosh HaShana must be preceded by a tekia from the sounding of the shofar in the wilderness at the time of the gathering of the assembly, one can argue as follows: If so, just as there, in the wilderness, there was sounding of trumpets, so too, here, on Rosh HaShana, there must be sounding of trumpets.

Therefore, the verse states: “Sound the shofar at the New Moon, at the full moon [keseh] for our feast day” (Psalms 81:4). Which is the Festival on which the month, i.e., the moon, is covered [mitkaseh]? You must say that this is Rosh HaShana, the only Festival that coincides with the new moon, which cannot be seen. And the Merciful One states: “Sound the shofar at the New Moon,” which indicates that on Rosh HaShana one sounds a shofar and nothing else.

§ Rabbi Abbahu instituted in Caesarea the following order of sounding of the shofar: First a tekia, a simple uninterrupted sound; next three shevarim, broken sounds; followed by a terua, a series of short blasts; and, finally, another tekia. The Gemara asks: Whichever way you look at it, this is difficult. If, according to the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, the sound the Torah calls a terua is a whimpering, i.e., short, consecutive sounds, one should perform tekia-terua-tekia set. And if he holds that a terua is moaning, i.e., longer, broken sounds, he should sound a set as follows: Tekia, followed by three shevarim, and then another tekia. Why include both a terua and a shevarim?

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu was uncertain whether a terua means moaning or whimpering, and he therefore instituted that both types of sound should be included, to ensure that one fulfills his obligation. Rav Avira strongly objects to this: But perhaps a terua is whimpering, and the addition of three shevarim interrupts between the terua and the initial tekia, which disqualifies the entire set. The Gemara answers: That is why one then performs a tekia-terua-tekia set, to account for this possibility. Ravina strongly objects to this: But perhaps a terua is moaning, and the terua interrupts between the shevarim and the final tekia, once again disqualifying the entire set. The Gemara likewise answers: That is why one then performs a tekia-shevarim-tekia set, to cover this possibility as well.

The Gemara asks: But if in any case one must perform the two sets of blasts, for what purpose did Rabbi Abbahu institute that one should perform a tekia-shevarim-terua-tekia set? If a terua is moaning, one already did it; if it is whimpering, one already did this, too. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Abbahu was uncertain, and he thought that perhaps a terua consists of moaning followed by whimpering. Consequently, all three sets are necessary.

The Gemara asks: If so, let one perform the opposite set as well: Tekia, terua, three shevarim, tekia, as perhaps a terua consists of whimpering and then moaning. The Gemara answers: The normal way of things is that when a person experiences a bad event, he first moans and then whimpers, but not the reverse.

§ The mishna taught: If one sounded the first tekia and then extended the second tekia of that series to the length of two tekiot, so that it should count as both the second tekia of the first set and the first tekia of the second set, it is considered as only one tekia, and one must begin the second set with a new tekia. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: If one heard

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
© כל הזכויות שמורות לפורטל הדף היומי | אודות | צור קשר | הוספת תכנים | רשימת תפוצה | הקדשה | תרומות | תנאי שימוש באתר | מפת האתר