סקר
כמה לומדי דף יומי יש במשפחתך הקרובה?






 

Steinsaltz

One who prepares a lulav for himself, but not one who prepares for others, recites when preparing it on the eve of the Festival: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. When he takes it during the Festival in order to fulfill his obligation, he says: Blessed…Who sanctified us with His mitzvot and commanded us concerning the taking of a lulav. And even though he recited the blessing over the lulav on the first day of the Festival, he repeats and recites the blessing over the lulav all seven days when fulfilling the mitzva. One who establishes a sukka for himself recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. When he enters to sit in the sukka, he recites: “Blessed…Who has sanctified us with His mitzvot and commanded us to reside in the sukka. And once he recited the blessing on the first day, he no longer recites it on the rest of the days, as all seven days are considered a single unit.

Now, the halakha cited in this baraita that the blessing over lulav is recited all seven days is difficult; it contradicts the halakha stated by Rabba bar bar Ḥana in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan, that the blessing over lulav is recited only on the first day. The halakha cited in this baraita that the blessing over sukka is recited only on the first day is likewise difficult, as it contradicts the halakha that Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said, that the blessing over sukka is recited all seven days.

The Gemara continues: Granted, the contradiction between the halakha with regard to lulav in the baraita and the halakha with regard to lulav stated in the name of Rabbi Yoḥanan is not difficult. Here, in the baraita, where the halakha is to recite the blessing each day, it is referring to a time when the Temple is in existence, where the mitzva of lulav is performed all seven days. There, in the case of the statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan that the blessing is recited only on the first day, it is referring to a time when the Temple is not in existence. However, the contradiction between one halakha of sukka and the other halakha of sukka remains difficult, as Rabbi Yoḥanan’s statement indicates that the mitzva of sukka during the Festival is considered seven separate mitzvot, while the halakha in the baraita indicates that it is one extended mitzva.

The Gemara answers: This matter is related to a general dispute between tanna’im, as it was taught in a baraita: With regard to phylacteries, every time one dons them he recites the blessing over them; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: One recites the blessing only in the morning. Apparently, these tanna’im would dispute the issue of sukka as well: Does one recite the blessing each time he performs the mitzva or only the first time he performs it at the beginning of Sukkot?

Apropos phylacteries, it was stated that Abaye said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and Rava said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Rav Mari, son of the daughter of Shmuel, said: I observed Rava, who did not act in accordance with his own halakha and recite the blessing over phylacteries only once. Rather, he rises early, and enters the bathroom, and exits, and washes his hands, and dons phylacteries, and recites the blessing. And when he needs to go another time, he enters the bathroom, and exits, and washes his hands, and then dons phylacteries, and then recites the blessing. And we too, in the case of sukka, act in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and recite the blessing all seven days.

Mar Zutra said: I observed Rav Pappi, who recited the blessing whenever he donned phylacteries. The Sages of the school of Rav Ashi recited the blessing whenever they touched the phylacteries that they were donning.

§ Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: The blessing over the mitzva of lulav is recited all seven days of the Festival. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: On the first day, there is the mitzva of lulav by Torah law, and one recites a blessing. From that point onward it is a mitzva of the Elders, a rabbinic ordinance to commemorate the Temple, and one is not required to recite a blessing. Rabbi Yitzḥak said: On each day of Sukkot it is a mitzva of the Elders. The Gemara wonders: Even on the first day? But don’t we maintain that on the first day the mitzva of lulav is by Torah law? The Gemara emends the citation. Say that Rabbi Yitzḥak said: On each day of Sukkot except for the first day. The Gemara asks: If so, that opinion is the same as that of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi; but they appear to disagree. The Gemara answers: Emend the citation and say: And likewise, Rabbi Yitzḥak said, in agreement with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.

The Gemara notes: And Rav also held that the blessing over the mitzva of lulav is recited all seven days, and one recites the blessing even on the six days when the mitzva is by rabbinic law, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said: One who lights a Hanukkah light must recite a blessing. Rabbi Yirmeya said: One who sees a burning Hanukkah light must recite a blessing. What blessings does one recite? Rav Yehuda said: On the first day of Hanukkah, the one who lights recites three blessings: To light the Hanukkah light, Who has performed miracles, and the blessing of time. The one who sees burning lights recites two blessings. From this point onward, from the second day of Hanukkah, the one who lights recites two blessings, and the one who sees recites one blessing.

The Gemara asks: And what is the first blessing that one recites? He recites: Blessed…Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us to light the Hanukkah light. The Gemara asks: And where did He command us? The mitzva of Hanukkah is not mentioned in the Torah, so how can one say that it was commanded to us by God? The Gemara answers: The obligation to recite this blessing is derived from the verse: “You shall not turn aside from the sentence which they shall declare unto you, to the right, nor to the left” (Deuteronomy 17:11). From this verse, the mitzva incumbent upon all Jews to heed the statements and decrees of the Sages is derived. Therefore, one who fulfills their directives fulfills a mitzva by Torah law. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said that the mitzva to heed the voice of the Elders is derived from the verse: “Ask your father, and he will declare unto you, your Elders, and they will tell you” (Deuteronomy 32:7).

The Gemara asks: What blessing does he omit on the other days of Hanukkah? The Gemara answers: He omits the blessing of time: Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. The Gemara asks: And say that he omits the blessing of the miracle: Who has performed miracles. The Gemara answers: The miracle is relevant on all of the days, whereas the blessing: Who has given us life, is pertinent only to the first time one performs the mitzva each year. In any event, from the statement of Rav it is clear that one recites a blessing over a rabbinic mitzva, and therefore one recites the blessing over the lulav all seven days. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak taught this halakha in the name of Rav explicitly, and it is unnecessary to infer Rav’s opinion from statements in other areas of halakha. Rav said: On all seven days, one recites the blessing over the mitzva of lulav.

§ The Sages taught in a baraita: One who establishes a sukka for himself recites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. When he enters to reside in the sukka, he recites: “Blessed…Who has sanctified us with His mitzvot and commanded us to reside in the sukka. If the sukka was already established and standing and was not constructed for the sake of the mitzva of sukka, then if he is able to introduce a novel element in the sukka for the sake of the mitzva, he recites the blessing: Who has given us life. And if not, then when he enters to reside in the sukka on the Festival he recites two blessings: To reside in the sukka, and: Who has given us life. Rav Ashi said: I observed Rav Kahana, who recites all these blessings over the cup on which he recites kiddush.

The Sages taught: If one had several mitzvot before him to fulfill, he recites: Blessed…Who has sanctified us with His mitzvot, and commanded us concerning the mitzvot. Rabbi Yehuda says: He recites a blessing over each and every one in and of itself. Rabbi Zeira said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa who said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. And Rabbi Zeira said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa who said: What is the rationale for the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda? It is as it is written: “Blessed is the Lord, day by day” (Psalms 68:20). The question arises: Is it so that one blesses Him by day and does not bless Him at night? Rather, the verse comes to tell you: Each and every day, give the Lord the blessings appropriate for that day. Here too, with regard to each and every matter, give Him blessings appropriate to that matter, and do not group the blessings together.

Apropos the halakha transmitted by this pair of amora’im, the Gemara continues: Rabbi Zeira said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa who said: Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that an empty vessel

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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