סקר
האם אתה לומד עם גמרא מפורשת/מבוארת?






 

Steinsaltz

How much wine is used for the libations of a ewe? And I resolved this question from that which is stated in a mishna (Shekalim 14b): Generally, the wine for libations would be procured from the supplies of the Temple. One bringing an offering would pay the Temple treasurer for the quantity of wine required, and then the treasurer would give him a token as a receipt indicating what had been paid for. The individual would then proceed to the official appointed over the Temple’s supplies to collect the wine he had paid for. If the token had the word: Kid, it could be used to collect wine for libations for sheep, whether large or small, male or female, except for those of rams. Evidently, the same quantity is required for the libations of ewes as for lambs.

MISHNA: For all communal offerings there is no mitzva of placing hands on the head of the offering, except for the bull that comes to atone for a community-wide violation of any one of the mitzvot that was perpetrated due to an erroneous ruling of the Sanhedrin, where the judges of the Sanhedrin are required to place their hands upon its head (see Leviticus 4:13–21); and the scapegoat brought on Yom Kippur, upon which the High Priest places his hands (see Leviticus, chapter 16). Rabbi Shimon says: Also in the case of the goat that comes to atone for a community-wide perpetration of idol worship that occurred due to an erroneous ruling of the Sanhedrin, the judges of the Sanhedrin are required to place their hands upon its head (see Numbers 15:22–26).

All offerings of an individual require placing hands, except for the firstborn offering, the animal tithe offering, and the Paschal offering.

The mitzva of placing hands is performed by the owner of the offering. The mishna adds: And if the owner died, then the heir is regarded as the offering’s owner and so he places his hands on the offering and brings the accompanying libations. And furthermore, he can substitute a non-sacred animal for it. Although it is prohibited to perform an act of substitution, if the owner of an offering does this, his attempt is successful to the extent that the non-sacred animal is thereby consecrated, even though the original offering also remains sacred.

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita: For all communal offerings there is no mitzva of placing hands, except for the bull that comes to atone for a community-wide violation of any one of the mitzvot, and the goats that come to atone for a community-wide violation of the prohibition of idol worship; this is the statement of Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda says: There is no mitzva of placing hands with regard to the goats that come to atone for idol worship. But if this is the halakha, which offering shall I bring in their place? The scapegoat.

The Gemara interrupts the citation of the baraita with a question: Why does Rabbi Yehuda search for an additional case? Is it not possible not to insert an additional case? Ravina said: It is learned as a tradition that there are two instances in which placing hands is required for communal offerings.

The baraita continues: Rabbi Shimon said to Rabbi Yehuda: How can you include the scapegoat as one of the two cases requiring the placing of hands? Isn’t it the halakha that placing hands can be performed only by the offering’s owner, i.e., the one who will achieve atonement through the sacrifice of the offering? And with regard to this offering, the scapegoat, it is Aaron the High Priest or whichever of his sons serves as High Priest who places his hands on it, and yet it is not he who achieves atonement through it. Rabbi Yehuda said to him: With regard to this offering as well, that halakha is fulfilled because Aaron and his sons are considered owners, as they also achieve atonement through it together with the rest of the community.

The Gemara elaborates on the dispute. Rabbi Yirmeya said: And Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yehuda, who disagree as to whether the High Priest achieves atonement through the scapegoat, each follow their standard line of reasoning.

This is as it is taught in a baraita: At the end of the passage delineating the Yom Kippur Temple service, the verse states: “He shall bring atonement upon the sanctum of the sacred, and upon the Tent of Meeting and the altar he shall effect atonement; and upon the priests and upon all the people, shall he bring atonement” (Leviticus 16:33). “He shall bring atonement upon the sanctum of the sacred”; this is referring to the innermost sanctum, i.e., the Holy of Holies. “And upon the Tent of Meeting”; this is referring to the Sanctuary. “And the altar”; this is understood in accordance with its plain meaning. “He shall effect atonement”; this is referring to the Temple courtyards. “And upon the priests”; this is understood in accordance with its plain meaning. “And upon all the people”; these are the Israelites. “Shall he bring atonement”; this is referring to the Levites.

All of them are equated with regard to the fact that they are all atoned for through one atonement, i.e., that they are atoned for by the scapegoat for all transgressions other than the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

The baraita continues: Rabbi Shimon says: Just as the blood of the goat whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary atones for Israelites for their defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, so too, the blood of the bull of the High Priest, whose blood presentation is also performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for the priests for their defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods. And just as the confession made over the scapegoat atones for Israelites for other transgressions, so too, the confession made over the bull atones for the priests for other transgressions. It is apparent from the baraita that it is only according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda that the scapegoat atones for both Israelites and priests, and consequently the High Priest may be considered an owner with regard to the mitzva of placing hands.

The Gemara analyzes Rabbi Shimon’s opinion: And according to Rabbi Shimon, one can ask: Weren’t both Israelites and priests certainly equated in the verse in Leviticus? In what way are they equated in the verse? The Gemara explains: Yes, according to his opinion they are equated in that they are all subject to atonement on Yom Kippur, but each one of the groups achieves atonement in its own way. The priests achieve atonement through the bull brought by the High Priest and his confession, while the Israelites and Levites achieve atonement through the confession over the scapegoat.

The Gemara summarizes: According to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, for the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, Israelites achieve atonemment through the presentation of the blood of the goat whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary, and the priests achieve atonemment through the presentation of the blood of the bull of Aaron, i.e., of the High Priest. And for other transgressions, both these Israelites and those priests achieve atonement through the confession made over the scapegoat. But according to Rabbi Shimon, for other transgressions as well, the priests achieve atonement through the confession made over the bull of the High Priest.

This understanding of their dispute is just like that which is taught in a mishna (Shevuot 2b): Israelites and priests and the anointed priest, i.e., the High Priest, achieve atonement from the scapegoat equally. What is the difference between Israelites, priests, and the anointed priest? It is only that the bull of the High Priest that he offers on Yom Kippur atones for the priests for their defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, whereas the Israelites achieve atonement for defiling caused by them through the goats that are sacrificed on Yom Kippur; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

And Rabbi Shimon says: With regard to the defiling of the Temple or its sacrificial foods, just as the blood of the goat, whose blood presentation is performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for Israelites, so too, the blood of the bull of the High Priest, whose blood presentation is also performed inside the Sanctuary, atones for the priests. And for all other transgressions, just as the confession made over the scapegoat atones for Israelites, so too, the confession made over the bull atones for the priests.

§ The mishna teaches that Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon disagree as to whether or not the goats that come for a community-wide violation of the prohibition against idol worship require the rite of placing hands. With regard to this, the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the bull that comes to atone for a community-wide violation of one of the mitzvot: “And the elders of the congregation shall place their hands upon the head of the bull before the Lord” (Leviticus 4:15). The verse specifies that this requirement applies to the bull to indicate that, with regard to offerings brought for community-wide transgressions, only the bull requires placing hands, but the goats brought for idol worship do not require placing hands; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

Rabbi Shimon says: Both offerings require placing hands. The verse specifies the requirement with regard to the bull because only it requires that placing hands be performed by Elders of the Sanhedrin, but the goats brought for idol worship do not require that placing hands be performed by the Elders, but rather by Aaron, i.e., the High Priest.

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from another baraita: With regard to the Yom Kippur scapegoat, the verse states: “And Aaron shall place both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, even all their sins” (Leviticus 16:21). The emphasis of “the live goat” indicates that with regard to communal offerings of goats, only the live goat, i.e., the scapegoat, requires placing hands, but the goats brought for idol worship do not require placing hands; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: Both offerings require placing hands. The verse specifies the requirement with regard to the live goat to teach that it requires that placing hands be performed by Aaron, i.e., the High Priest,

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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