סקר
האם אתה לומד עם גמרא מפורשת/מבוארת?






 

Steinsaltz

no placement of blood around all sides of the altar in offerings for which this is required, no waving of meal offerings, and no bringing of meal offerings to the corner of the altar prior to removal of the handful. Rabbi Yehuda says: There is no meal offering sacrificed on an altar outside the Temple. And requiring a member of the priesthood to perform the sacrificial rites, the priestly service vestments, the service vessels, the pleasing aroma to God, the partition for the blood, i.e., the red line dividing the upper and lower halves of the altar, and the priest’s washing of hands and feet before his service all do not apply to sacrifice on private altars, as the service there need not be performed by priests nor follow all the protocols of the Temple service.

But the intent to sacrifice or partake of the offering beyond its designated time, which renders the offering piggul; the halakha of portions of the offering left over [notar] beyond the time it may be eaten; and the prohibition against eating consecrated meat while ritually impure are equal in this, a private altar, and that, a public altar.

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that one who burns the red heifer outside its pit is not liable for sacrificing outside the Temple courtyard. The Gemara clarifies: What is the meaning of: Outside its pit? Reish Lakish said: It means outside the place that was inspected to ensure that it is not a gravesite, which would render it impure. Rabbi Yoḥanan said to him: But is not all of Eretz Yisrael inspected for impurity? Therefore, there is no need for the site of the burning of the red heifer to be specially inspected.

Rather, Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The term: Outside its pit, is referring to a case where the priest slaughtered the red heifer within the walls of Jerusalem and not in the place outside the walls, as the Torah prescribes: “And it shall be brought outside the camp, and it shall be slaughtered before him” (Numbers 19:3).

The Gemara challenges: But let Rabbi Yoḥanan interpret it to be a case where the priest slaughtered it outside the wall but not opposite, i.e., not in the direction of, the entrance to the Temple, as Rav Adda bar Ahava says: If he slaughtered it in a location not opposite the entrance, it is disqualified, as it is stated with regard to the red heifer: “And you shall give it to Elazar the priest, and it shall be brought outside the camp, and it shall be slaughtered before him. And Elazar the priest shall take of its blood with his finger, and sprinkle of its blood toward the front of the Tent of Meeting seven times” (Numbers 19:3–4).

The slaughter of the red heifer and the sprinkling of its blood are juxtaposed so that one will draw the following conclusion: Just as its sprinkling must be performed opposite the entrance, so too, its slaughter must be performed opposite the entrance. And if you would say that Rabbi Yoḥanan does not juxtapose the two verses for the purpose of this comparison, that is difficult: But it was stated with regard to a red heifer slaughtered in a location not opposite the entrance that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: It is disqualified, as “and it shall be slaughtered” is juxtaposed with “and sprinkle.” Reish Lakish says: It is fit, since it is stated: “And it shall be brought outside the camp, and it shall be slaughtered,” indicating that it may be slaughtered in any location outside the camp.

And it was also stated that amora’im disagree with regard to a red heifer that the priest burned not opposite the entrance to the Temple. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: It is disqualified, and Rabbi Oshaya says: It is fit. The Gemara explains their reasoning: Rabbi Yoḥanan says that it is disqualified because of an additional juxtaposition. It is stated: “And the heifer shall be burned in his sight; its skin, and its flesh, and its blood, with its dung, shall be burned” (Numbers 19:5), while in the previous verse it is stated: “And sprinkle of its blood toward the front of the Tent of Meeting.” This teaches that just as the sprinkling of the blood must be done opposite the entrance, so too must the burning be done opposite the entrance.

And Rabbi Oshaya says that a red heifer that was burned in a location not opposite the entrance is fit, as the verse states: “With its dung [pirshah], shall be burned,” which is interpreted homiletically to mean: In the place that its soul departs [poreshet] for death, there shall be its burning. Just as no specific location is given for the soul’s departing, so too, the burning need not be performed in a specific location. Since Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that the red heifer must be slaughtered opposite the entrance to the Temple, why does he not understand the term: Outside of its pit, to be referring to its slaughter in any location not opposite the Temple entrance?

The Gemara answers: Say that Rabbi Yoḥanan is speaking utilizing the style of: It is not necessary, as follows: It is not necessary for the mishna to teach that in slaughtering a red heifer outside the wall in a location not opposite the entrance, one does not transgress the prohibition against slaughtering outside the Temple courtyard. In that case it is clearly disqualified, as he has distanced it from where it is meant to be slaughtered. But even if one slaughtered it inside the wall of Jerusalem, so that he brings it closer to the Temple, and one might say that it is a valid way of slaughtering the red heifer, Rabbi Yoḥanan teaches us that nevertheless it is disqualified.

§ The Gemara returns to the disagreement cited earlier: The Master says that Rabbi Yoḥanan said to Reish Lakish: But is not all of Eretz Yisrael inspected for impurity? Since Reish Lakish’s response to this question is not mentioned, the Gemara clarifies: With regard to what do they disagree? One Sage, Reish Lakish, holds that the flood in the time of Noah descended upon Eretz Yisrael, and its residents perished. It is therefore necessary to inspect the place where the red heifer is burned to ascertain whether it is a gravesite. And one Sage, Rabbi Yoḥanan, holds that the flood did not descend upon Eretz Yisrael, and there is no reason to suspect there are lost graves there.

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: And both of them, Rabbi Yoḥanan and Reish Lakish, interpreted the same verse, stated by Ezekiel with regard to Eretz Yisrael, to derive their opinions. The verse states: “Son of man, say to her: You are a land that is not cleansed, nor rained upon in the day of indignation” (Ezekiel 22:24).

Rabbi Yoḥanan holds that the verse is asking a rhetorical question: Eretz Yisrael, are you not cleansed from the impurity imparted by corpses? Did the rains of the flood fall upon you on the day of indignation? And Reish Lakish holds that this verse should be read in accordance with its straightforward meaning, i.e., as a statement, not a question: You are a land that is not cleansed. Didn’t rains fall upon you on the day of indignation? Therefore, the bodies of all of those who perished in the flood are somewhere in the ground.

Reish Lakish raised an objection to Rabbi Yoḥanan from a mish-na (Para 3:2): Courtyards were built in Jerusalem on stone, and beneath these courtyards there was a hollow space due to the concern that there was a lost grave in the depths. The space served as a barrier preventing the impurity from reaching the courtyards above. And they would bring pregnant women, and those women would give birth in those courtyards. And those women would raise their children there, thereby ensuring that the children never became impure. This would enable the children to assist in the rite of the red heifer.

And once the children reached the appropriate age, the priests would bring oxen there. And on the backs of these oxen, they would place doors, and the children would sit upon the doors, so that the doors would serve as a barrier between them and any impurity in the depths, and they would hold cups of stone, which are not susceptible to ritual impurity, in their hands, and they would ride upon the oxen to the Siloam pool. And they filled the cups with water and would sit back in their places upon the oxen and be taken to the Temple Mount. The water in the cups would be used for the rite of the red heifer. Apparently, there is concern that hidden sources of impurity exist in Eretz Yisrael.

Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said that Rabbi Yoḥanan would reply: The Sages established a higher standard for purity in the case of the red heifer, but generally speaking there is no concern for hidden sources of impurity in Eretz Yisrael caused by those who perished in the flood.

Rabbi Yoḥanan raised an objection to Reish Lakish from a baraita (see Tosefta, Eduyyot 3:3): Once, human bones were found in the Chamber of the Woodshed, and the Sages sought to decree impurity upon Jerusalem, i.e., to proclaim all who go there to be impure, as if a corpse can be found in a chamber of the Temple there is reason to be concerned that there are lost graves in other places as well. Rabbi Yehoshua stood upon his feet and said: Is it not a shame and disgrace for us to decree impurity upon the city of our fathers because of this concern? Show me: Where are the dead of the flood, and where are all of the dead killed by Nebuchadnezzar?

Rabbi Yoḥanan infers: From the fact that Rabbi Yehoshua said this, is this not to say that there were no lost graves in Jerusalem from the flood, because the flood did not take place there? Reish Lakish responds: And according to your reasoning, so too were there not those killed by Nebuchadnezzar, in and around Jerusalem, who were mentioned by Rabbi Yehoshua? Certainly there were, as Nebuchadnezzar killed many people in Jerusalem. Rather, there were, and others removed the bodies. Here too, with regard to the dead of the flood, there were, and others removed the bodies. And it is possible to ask: If they were removed, why is it necessary to be concerned that there may be impurity in the place of the red heifer,

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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