סקר
מסכת שבת






 

Steinsaltz

And with regard to all of the offerings that are eaten, the priests are permitted to alter the manner of their consumption and eat them as they choose. Therefore, the priests are permitted to eat them roasted, boiled, or cooked, and they are likewise permitted to place non-sacred spices or teruma spices in the cooking pot. This is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. This indicates that it is permitted to spice offerings with teruma spices ab initio, despite the fact that this reduces the time available to eat the teruma. Rabba said to Abaye: Set aside the halakha of teruma of spices, as this teruma applies by rabbinic law, not by Torah law.

Abaye raised an objection to Rabba from a mishna (Ma’aser Sheni 3:2): One may not purchase teruma with second tithe money, because he thereby limits the circumstances for the eating of the teruma. Teruma may be eaten in any place and even by an acute mourner, i.e., one whose relative died that same day and has not yet been buried, whereas second tithe and food purchased with second tithe money must be eaten in Jerusalem and is prohibited to an acute mourner. And Rabbi Shimon permits one to purchase teruma with second tithe money. This indicates that Rabbi Shimon allows one to bring teruma to the status of unfitness. Rabba was silent in response to his statement, and did not answer Abaye.

When Abaye came before Rav Yosef and told him of his discussion with Rabba, Rav Yosef said to him: Why didn’t you raise an objection to Rabba from this mishna (Shevi’it 8:7): One may not cook vegetables of the Sabbatical Year in teruma oil, so that one does not bring consecrated food, teruma, to the status of unfitness, as the teruma oil would have to be eaten before the time of the removal of the Sabbatical Year produce; and Rabbi Shimon permits one to cook in this manner. Evidently, Rabbi Shimon allows one to bring teruma to the status of unfitness ab initio.

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: And didn’t I raise an objection to Rabba from that mishna discussing the halakha of teruma spices, and he said to me: Disregard the halakha of teruma of spices, as this teruma applies by rabbinic law. Here too, with regard to vegetables of the Sabbatical Year, he could likewise say that this teruma oil is not olive oil, but oil that is teruma of vegetables, which applies by rabbinic law. Rav Yosef replied: If so, that this mishna is referring to vegetable oil of teruma, it should teach the opposite case, that one may not cook vegetables of teruma in oil of the Sabbatical Year. Since the tanna specifies teruma oil, he must certainly be speaking of teruma by Torah law, i.e., olive oil.

Abaye then said to Rav Yosef: And didn’t I raise an objection to Rabba from the mishna, in which Rabbi Shimon permits one to bring sacrificial animals to the status of unfitness, and Rabba said to me that Rabbi Shimon’s ruling applies only after the fact, when the guilt offering and peace offering have become intermingled? Here too, he would say that this ruling is after the fact, that when the teruma oil and the vegetables of the Sabbatical Year have become intermingled one may then cook them together, but he does not permit one to cook them together ab initio.

The Gemara asks: If this halakha is referring to a case where the foods have already become intermingled, what is the reason of the Rabbis for prohibiting one to cook them together? The Gemara answers: This is just as it is in the case of the mishna with regard to a guilt offering and a peace offering that became intermingled, that even after the offerings are intermingled, one may not bring the flesh of the peace offering to the status of unfitness.

The Gemara raises a difficulty: Are these two cases comparable? There, with regard to the offerings, the situation has a remedy by having the offerings graze until they develop a blemish, at which point the owner brings each offering of each type with the monetary value of the higher-quality animal. By contrast, in this case of teruma oil mixed with vegetables of the Sabbatical Year, the situation has no remedy similar to that of having the offerings graze, and therefore if the Rabbis prohibited the mixture the teruma would go to waste.

If one wishes to compare this case of oil and vegetables to an intermingling of sacrificial animals, this is comparable only to the other halakha of the mishna, which addresses a piece of the flesh of an offering of the most sacred order that was intermingled with pieces of the flesh of offerings of lesser sanctity. Here the Rabbis concede that since there is no remedy for the intermingled pieces, the halakha is that they both must be eaten in accordance with the halakha of the more stringent among them, but they are not prohibited.

Ravina objects to this comparison: Are these cases comparable? In the case of the piece of sacrificial flesh that is intermingled with the other pieces, it has no remedy at all, whereas this case of teruma oil has a remedy through squeezing the oil from the vegetables. If so, this case of vegetables is in fact comparable to that of an intermingling of a guilt offering and peace offering, which also have a means of remedy, and for this reason the Rabbis prohibited the mixture.

The Gemara asks: And how would Rav Yosef respond to the claim that the Rabbis prohibit this mixture after the fact because there is a remedy available through squeezing it? The Gemara explains that Rav Yosef would respond that squeezing is not in fact a remedy, as how can one squeeze it? If one squeezes the vegetables a lot, he thereby causes a loss of Sabbatical Year produce; if one squeezes the vegetables a little, ultimately the teruma oil and vegetables of the Sabbatical Year will still be intermingled, as this squeezing will be ineffective. If so, Rav Yosef’s contention that in this case the Rabbis would not have prohibited cooking vegetables of the Sabbatical Year in teruma oil remains valid. Consequently, this must be referring to a case where the vegetables and oil have not yet become mixed, which means that this case does prove that Rabbi Shimon permits one to bring sacrificial animals to the status of unfitness ab initio, not only after the fact, as claimed by Rabba.

Rav Yosef raised an objection to the opinion of Rabba from a baraita (Tosefta, Nazir 6:1): How should one whose status as a confirmed leper has not been determined bring his guilt offering and log of oil on the eighth day of his purification? Rabbi Shimon says: On the following day, after his seven days of purification, he brings his guilt offering and his log of oil with it, and says the following stipulation: If this offering is one of a leper, i.e., if I am a confirmed leper, this is his, i.e., my, guilt offering and that is his log of oil.

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
אדם סלומון
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