סקר
כמה זמן אתה כבר גולש בפורטל הדף היומי






 

Steinsaltz

or that thresh teruma and tithe, which one may not allow his cows to eat, if he muzzles them he does not violate the prohibition of: Do not muzzle, but due to the appearance of prohibition, as observers are unaware that he is acting in a permitted manner, he should bring a piece of that species of produce and hang it in the basket [bateraskalin] that is by the animal’s mouth. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: He does not have to use the same food that the animal is threshing, as he may bring vetches and hang them for it, as vetches are better for it than anything.

And the Gemara raises a contradiction against this from a baraita: In the case of cows that tread on produce, one does not violate the prohibition of: Do not muzzle, but with regard to those which thresh teruma and tithes, he does violate the prohibition of: Do not muzzle. And in the case of a gentile who threshes with the cow of a Jew, he does not violate the prohibition of: Do not muzzle, but a Jew who threshes with the cow of a gentile does violate the prohibition of: Do not muzzle, as it depends on the person who performs the action, not the identity of the animal’s owner. This presents a difficulty with regard to the ruling concerning teruma in one baraita and the ruling concerning teruma in the other baraita, and there is similarly a difficulty with regard to the ruling concerning tithe in one baraita and the ruling concerning tithe in the other baraita.

The Gemara comments: Granted, the contradiction between the ruling concerning teruma in one baraita and the ruling concerning teruma in the other baraita is not difficult, as here, the ruling in this baraita is stated with regard to actual teruma, which may not be fed to a cow, and there, the ruling in that baraita is stated with regard to growths of teruma, which have the status of teruma by rabbinic law, and therefore it is permitted to feed them to one’s animal so as not to violate the prohibition against muzzling. But as for the contradiction between the ruling concerning tithe in one baraita and the ruling concerning tithe in the other baraita, this is difficult.

And if you would say that the contradiction between the ruling concerning tithe in one baraita and the ruling concerning tithe in the other baraita is also not difficult, as here, the ruling in this baraita is stated with regard to actual tithe, which may not be fed to a cow, and there, the ruling in that baraita is stated with regard to growths of tithe, which have the status of tithe by rabbinic law, and therefore it is permitted to feed them to one’s animal in order not to violate the prohibition against muzzling, this answer cannot be accepted. The reason is that granted, the growths of teruma are considered like teruma by rabbinic law, but the growths of tithe are non-sacred foods. As we learned in a mishna (Terumot 9:4): The growths of untithed produce and the growths of second tithe are non-sacred.

The Gemara suggests a different answer: Rather, this is not difficult. The ruling of this baraita is stated with regard to first tithe, which is considered the owner’s property, whereas the ruling of that baraita is stated with regard to second tithe, which is property of the Temple treasury. And if you wish, say that both this ruling and that ruling are stated with regard to second tithe, and it is not difficult, as the ruling of this baraita, according to which it is prohibited to feed it to the animal, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, while the ruling of that baraita, which says that one may feed it to the animal, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.

The Gemara elaborates: This baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who says that second tithe is property belonging to the Most High, i.e., the owner has only the right to eat the food, and therefore he may not let his cow consume it, whereas that baraita is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who says that second tithe is non-sacred property.

The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of a cow that threshes tithes? Tithes are usually separated only after the produce has been threshed and collected into a pile. The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where the separation of tithes performed by the owner preceded the separation of teruma at the stage when the produce was still on the stalks.

The Gemara further asks: And according to the explanation that the baraita that permits feeding this produce to one’s animal is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, i.e., that this is referring to second tithe, how is the consumption of this tithe permitted before it enters Jerusalem? But one is required to bring second tithe within the city wall. The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where he threshed inside the wall of Beit Pagei, the outer wall of Jerusalem, which enclosed a semi-rural suburb.

If you wish, say a different answer to the original contradiction between the baraitot: This is not difficult; here, the ruling in this baraita is stated with regard to definite tithe, which may not be fed to a cow, whereas there, the ruling in that baraita is stated with regard to doubtfully tithed produce [demai], from which one is required to separate tithes by rabbinic law. The Gemara comments: Now that you have arrived at this answer, i.e., that this baraita is referring to demai, the contradiction between the ruling of this baraita concerning teruma and the ruling of that baraita concerning teruma is also not difficult, as one can likewise say that here, the ruling in this baraita is stated with regard to definite teruma, and there, the ruling in that baraita is stated with regard to teruma of demai.

The Gemara asks: Granted, with regard to demai of tithe, there is such a concept, as the Sages decreed that one must separate tithe from doubtfully tithed produce. But with regard to demai of teruma, is there teruma of this kind? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: He, Yoḥanan the High Priest, also annulled the declaration of tithes (Deuteronomy 26:12–19), due to fear that the agricultural halakhot were not being properly observed and the declaration that one has separated his tithe in accordance with Torah law would therefore be false, and he decreed that one must separate demai of tithe from the produce of one who is unreliable with regard to tithes. He issued this decree because he sent messengers throughout all the borders of Eretz Yisrael and saw that they would separate only the great teruma alone, not tithes. It is clear from here that Jews were not suspected of neglecting the mitzva of teruma, and therefore was no need to separate teruma from demai.

Rather, the Gemara offers a slightly different answer: It is not difficult; here, the ruling in this baraita is stated with regard to definite teruma of the tithe, separated by a Levite from his tithe and given to a priest; there, the ruling in that baraita is stated with regard to teruma of the tithe from demai.

§ The Sages raised a dilemma before Rav Sheshet: If the animal was eating from the produce it was threshing, and it was excreting diarrhea [matrezet], what is the halakha? The Gemara explains the sides of the dilemma: Is the reason that one must let the animal eat because the food is good for it, and this produce is evidently not good for it, and therefore the animal should be muzzled to prevent it from harm? Or perhaps the reason for the prohibition against muzzling is that it sees food and suffers when it cannot eat, and this one also sees food and suffers when it cannot eat.

Rav Sheshet said to them: You learned a baraita that provides the answer to your question. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: One can bring vetches and hang them for it, as vetches are better for it than anything. One can learn from the baraita that the reason is because the food is good for it. The Gemara affirms: Learn from the baraita that it is so.

§ A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to the possibility that a person can say to a gentile: Muzzle my cow and thresh with it? Do we say that when we state the principle that speaking to a gentile and requesting of him to perform for oneself a task forbidden to a Jew is prohibited by a rabbinic decree, this matter applies only to Shabbat, when the performance of labor is a prohibition that entails stoning, but with regard to muzzling, which is merely a regular prohibition, giving an instruction of this kind to a gentile is not prohibited; or perhaps there is no difference between the prohibitions of Shabbat and other prohibitions in this regard?

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from the aforementioned baraita. A gentile who threshes with the cow of a Jew does not violate the prohibition of: Do not muzzle. One can infer as follows: It is a transgression by Torah law that he does not transgress, but there is a prohibition here by rabbinic law. The Gemara refutes this argument: This is no proof, as by right the baraita should have stated that there is no prohibition here either, but since the tanna of the baraita taught in the latter clause that a Jew who threshes with the cow of a gentile does violate the prohibition, he taught the first clause in a similar style, with the phrase: He does not violate the prohibition. If so, one cannot reach any conclusions from the wording of the baraita.

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear, as they sent to Shmuel’s father a halakhic inquiry with regard to these oxen

Talmud - Bavli - The William Davidson digital edition of the Koren No=C3=A9 Talmud
with commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz Even-Israel (CC-BY-NC 4.0)
© כל הזכויות שמורות לפורטל הדף היומי | אודות | צור קשר | הוספת תכנים | רשימת תפוצה | הקדשה | תרומות | תנאי שימוש באתר | מפת האתר